Monday, June 26, 2017

Other News

Professor Fired After Defending Blacks-Only Event During Explosive Fox N...

Dr. Cornel West on the Unpopular James Baldwin

The Rebellions of the 1960's.

The rebellions in America from 1963 to 1968 changed America forever. They were a part of the expressions frustrations of many about the injustices going on in the United States of America. These rebellions were different from the anti-black riots from white racists in that white racists had the intention specifically to murder and target black people violently. These rebellions of the 1960’s were created out of anger and out of hurt from neglect and oppression from capitalist America. The Second Great Migration allowed millions of African American to go into large urban centers in the North, the Midwest, and the West. Black people in those locations still faced de facto segregation (which is segregation by unwritten policies not by legal mandate), struggling educational services, police brutality, racism, discrimination, and bad social plus economic conditions. The 1963 Birmingham rebellion was a watershed movement in American history. This was long before the Watts rebellion. Black people in the South used self-defense for centuries and this rebellion was the beginning of the others in the future years after 1963. It started after white racists bombed many homes belonging to African Americans like the Gaston Motel, and the home of A.D. King (or Dr. King’s brother). The bystander Roosevelt Tatum survived one bombing too. Tatum said that the local police planted the bombs and A.D. King demanded that the FBI arrest local police members. Dr. King received a death threat. The Klan threatened people too. The Klan abhorred the agreement reached in Birmingham. On May 11, 1963, it started. One officer was stabbed. Many people started to reject nonviolence. State troopers came. One tank arrived. Armed cops patrolled the streets. White journalists and black people were sequestered in a bombed motel with no food or water until morning. President Kennedy wanted to promote law and order.

JFK enacted Operation Oak Tree which involved military force to end the rebellion in Birmingham. Operation Oak Tree was the first time in modern United States history that the federal government deployed military power in response to civil unrest without a specific legal injunction to enforce. Yet, Malcolm X accurately stated that Kennedy didn’t intervene when bombs were coming in the homes of black people or when dogs bit black men, black women, and black children in the streets. Malcolm X said that he only responded when black people used rebellion and self-defense. He’s right. New York Congressman Adam Clayton Powell said that if Kennedy didn’t move quickly on civil rights in Birmingham and nationwide, then rebellions would spread nationwide including the capital of Washington, D.C. He was right also. Ironically, the rebellion increased the speed in which civil rights legislation would be passed. In August 1-4, 1963, white racists use bricks and bottles to harm the house of Reginald Williams (who is a black man) in the Englewood section of Chicago. More than 220 people are arrested. There was the Cambridge rebellion in 1963 too. Cambridge was in Maryland in the Maryland section of the Eastern Shore. The Civil Rights movement in Cambridge was led by Gloria Richardson and SNCC against the pro-segregationist police and power structure. I have been to Cambridge before in real life. The movement wanted to end discrimination. The Cambridge Nonviolent Action Committee (CNAC) is founded soon after these initial demonstrations to support and continue local protests as early as 1962. SNCC and the CNAC also want fair housing, equal employment opportunities, and desegregation of public accommodations. The power structure refuses to budge. On June 14, 1963, a protest happened. Later, businesses were burned. White and African American citizens exchange gunfire and then martial law was declared by Governor Tawes. Governor Tawes declared martial law and deployed the Maryland National Guard to Cambridge after the CNAC refuses a year-long moratorium on protests. The guardsmen remain in the town for a 25-day period, from June 14 through July 8. During the summer, both white and blacks exchange gunfire continuously and the Maryland National Guard occupied Cambridge. In 1964, rebellions grew. During the summer of 1964, they existed in New York City, Rochester (in New York State), Philadelphia, Elizabeth (in New Jersey), Paterson (in New Jersey), and Dixmoor (or a suburb in Chicago).

The common factor among all of these rebellions is that these locations are filled with people who were victims of many injustices (like police brutality, racism, housing discrimination, economic exploitation, de facto segregation, and educational issues). Many people in the rebellions were working class. Most of these rebellions took place during the Summer of 1964. During the Watts rebellion of 1965 in Los Angeles changed everything. It happened when the police in Watts arrested a black person. The person’s mother’s intervened and the rebellion happened. For years, black people in Los Angeles were oppressed by the police. African Americans since the 1950’s have complained about excessive force by the police and discriminatory practices. Restrictive covenant policies restricted African Americans, Latino Americans, and Asian Americans from receiving adequate housing of their choice. White racists in the early 1950’s bombed homes, fired homes, and burnt crosses on the homes of black Americans in Suasion Avenue. White gangs harassed black people in LA since the 1920’s.  In August of 1965, the Watts rebellion happened. Homes were bombed. Stores were destroyed. The California Army National Guard arrested people. The military response was huge and some people used physical combat against the military. This was the beginning of some of the biggest urban unrest since the Civil War. Most of those involved in the rebellion had no criminal record. They were mostly working class human beings. Between 31,000 and 35,000 adults participated in the riots over the course of six days, while about 70,000 people were "sympathetic, but not active." Over the six days, there were 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. In a 1966 essay, black civil rights activist Bayard Rustin stated: "The whole point of the outbreak in Watts was that it marked the first major rebellion of Negroes against their own masochism and was carried on with the express purpose of asserting that they would no longer quietly submit to the deprivation of slum life."

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. immediately came into Watts to access the situation. He was booed by some black people. Dr. King said that the rebellion was part of the frustration of black Americans. While he condemned the violence, he recognized that something must be done to address the needs of the black residents of Watts. The McCone Commission report identified the root causes of the riots to be high unemployment, poor schools, and other inferior living conditions for African Americans in Watts. The McCone Commission called for “emergency literacy and preschool programs, improved police-community ties, increased low-income housing, more job-training projects, upgraded health-care services, more efficient public transportation, and many more." Most of these recommendations were not acted upon. In 1966, rebellions happened in Chicago, Omaha, Cleveland, Waukegan (in Illinois), Benton Harbor (in Michigan), in Atlanta, and in other places. The 1967 rebellions were large and it was called by the media as ‘long hot summers.’ The biggest of such rebellions happened in Detroit from July 23-29, 1967. It happened because of many reasons. A white racist gang killed Danny Thomas, who was a black Army veteran. Since the 1950’s, there has been massive white flight. Detroit is known for its racism spanning decades and centuries. The police raided an after-hours club in Detroit. The police claimed that the club was didn’t have a legal license. One cop slammed the window of a social club with a sledgehammer.  Later, in a memoir, Walter Scott III, a doorman whose father was running the raided blind pig, took responsibility for starting the riot by inciting the crowd and throwing a bottle at a police officer. Then, the rebellion happened. It involved looting, sniper fire, burning of cars, and other actions. Local, state, and federal authorities were called. During these rebellions, police brutality was abundant too. Shortly before midnight on Monday, July 24, President Johnson authorized the use of federal troops in compliance with the Insurrection Act of 1807, which authorizes the President to call in armed forces to fight an insurrection in any state against the government. This gave Detroit the distinction of being the only domestic American city to have been occupied by federal troops three times. The U.S. Army's 82nd Airborne Division and 101st Airborne Division had earlier been positioned at nearby Selfridge Air Force Base in suburban Macomb County. Starting at 1:30 on Tuesday, July 25, some 8,000 Michigan Army National Guardsmen were deployed to quell the disorder. Later, their number would be augmented with 4,700 paratroopers from both the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions, and 360 Michigan State Police officers. The local police assaulted those they have arrested both blacks and whites. The Algiers Motel incident was when the police murdered innocent people. The economic damage and the human life loss were huge. Thousands of people were injured. Dozens in about 43 people died. Damaged ranged above $40 million. Almost 400 families were homeless. The events caused the Housing bill in the state level to be passed in Michigan. It caused an acceleration of white flight. After 1967, Detroit’s infrastructure started to rapidly decline because of loss of tax revenue, underfunding, and the deindustrialization. The scale of the riot was surpassed in the United States only by the 1863 New York City draft riots during the American Civil War and the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Detroit once had some of the highest growth of the black middle class in the nation. Detroit is resilient and today, Detroit has tons of real people doing great work. Many black nationalists like H. Rap Brown welcomed these rebellions as precursors to the revolution. Dr. King condemned the violence in the rebellions while understanding that riots are the voices of the unheard (and that you must do more than just condemn a riot. You have to understand what causes riots in order to find the solutions). 1967 saw rebellions in Cincinnati, Buffalo, Newark, Plainfield (in New Jersey), Cairo (in Illinois), Cambridge (in Maryland), Saginaw (in Michigan), and Milwaukee.

The 1968 Orangeburg Massacre in South Carolina involved the police killing innocent black demonstrators (who were protesting racial segregation in a bowling alley in Orangeburg, SC. Many of the protesters were students from South Carolina State University) in February 8, 1968. South Carolina State University is a HBCU or a Historically Black College or University. The state and local police officers fired guns on an unarmed group of black students. 3 students were killed and 27 people are wounded. It was an injustice by the police. In a state trial in 1970, the activist Cleveland Sellers was convicted of a charge of riot related to the events on February 6 at the bowling alley. He served seven months in state prison, getting time off for good behavior. He was the national program director of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1973 he wrote The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC. Twenty-five years later, Sellers was officially pardoned by the governor of South Carolina. Cleveland Sellers was an innocent man who was oppressed by a racist regime in America. After the April 4, 1968 assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., rebellions happened in over 100 cities. Roy Wilkins and many moderate civil rights leaders wanted calm. Kwame Ture said that white America made a big mistake when Dr. King was murdered. Some people felt that nonviolence wouldn’t work to cause change. Johnson called Coretta Scott King to send condolences and to promote a sense of justice. Attorney General Ramsey Clark pushed the FBI to find the murderer. Troops and tanks were in the streets of Washington, D.C. Troops with machine guns were guarding the U.S. Capitol. This was the biggest insurrection since the Civil War. There were questions about whether the nation would survive. There were questions on whether people can come together. We, who live in this generation, are the answers to those questions. The truth is that the nation survived. The truth is that both nonviolence and self-defense are legitimate avenues of activism and hope should always be embraced by any oppressed people. The rebellions taught us that the voices of the oppressed must not only be heard, but respected. We are not naïve either. We have a long way to go. Imperialism, racism, police terrorism, sexism, xenophobia, and other forms of fascism still exist globally. Those evils must be eradicated completely. Compassion and empathy go a long way in fighting for justice. The movement continued and persisted.

By Timothy

Saturday, June 24, 2017

Black History- Black Actors in the 60s and 70s (When We SpeakTV)

Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence

#StayWoke: Take a Look at Trump’s Energy Appointee’s Deleted Tweets About Blacks, Jews and Women

A Case for Reparations at the University of Chicago

Mayor-elect Lumumba: Jackson “to be the Most Radical City on the Planet”

If You Embrace Assata, You Must Fight the Black Misleadership Class

US Senate health care bill guts Medicaid, slashes taxes for the wealthy

Friday, June 23, 2017

The Woman Who Ran Around the World

Wilma Rudolph

Survivors of UK's Grenfell Tower Block Fire Demand Accountability for the Victims

1963 and Civil Rights

1963 would be one of the most explosive and important years of the Civil Rights Movement. It would be the 100th year Anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, which was a policy that wanted to free slaves from Confederate territories. On January 14, Governor Wallace wanted to maintain segregation forever in his January 14, 1963 inaugural address. He wouldn’t get his wish as segregation is not only racist and immoral. Jim Crow segregation has been involved in the torture and murder of black people. Harvey Gantt was the first black person to be in Clemson on January 28, 1963 (in the state of South Carolina). In February, about 400 people would be arrested in Baltimore in seating in a whites only movie theater. Baltimore would soon change the policy. The Birmingham Campaign would exist in 1963 too. Birmingham was one of the most segregated cities of the South. It was filled with violence, racism, and police brutality. The civil rights leaders learned lessons from the Albany movement in order for the Birmingham Campaign to be successful. The SCLC, SNCC, and other groups were involved in the campaign. Wyatt Tee Walker formed a plan to try to desegregate Birmingham downtown merchants rather than total desegregation as it was in Albany. Eugene “Bull” Connor was a brutal person. He was the Commissioner of Public Safety. He was especially cruel towards black protesters and he instigated violence against black people too. Connor had great political power and lost a mayoral election to the less rabidly segregationist candidate. Connor wanted to stay in office and formed a political clash with the new mayor. The Birmingham campaign involved many tactics. They included sit-ins, kneel-ins at local churches, etc. People marched to the county building to mark the beginning of a drive to register voters. Men and women were jailed.

The city issued an injunction barring all such protests. Many people defied it as viewing the injunction as unconstitutional. The campaign defied it and prepared for mass arrests of its supporters. Many protesters were arrested including Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 12, 1963. Dr. King wrote his famous “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” while he was in jail. He wrote his words on the margins of a newspaper. He did this, because he wasn’t allowed any writing paper while he was held in solitary confinement. He wanted to answer the moderate clergyman in Birmingham who didn’t want protests, didn’t want real change, and wanted people to wait for equality (which is ludicrous). Dr. King refuted them by saying that you don’t await for black people’s freedom and resistance against injustice in a radical way is legitimate. Supporters appealed to the Kennedy administration, which intervened to obtain King's release. King was allowed to call his wife, who was recuperating at home after the birth of their fourth child, and he was released early on April 19.  James Bevel or the SCLC’s Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education wanted to train high school students to demonstrate. This was controversial as many civil rights activists opposed this plan. This plan was the Children’s Crusade. Dr. King reluctantly agreed to this action. The children came since it ran out of adult demonstrators to protest. On May 2, 1963, more than 1,000 students skipped school to meet at the 16th Street Baptist Church to join the demonstrations. More than six hundred marched out of the church fifty at a time in an attempt to walk to City Hall to speak to Birmingham's mayor about segregation. They were arrested and put into jail. In this first encounter the police acted with restraint. On the next day, however, another one thousand students gathered at the church. When Bevel started them marching fifty at a time, Bull Connor finally unleashed police dogs on them and then turned the city's fire hoses water streams on the children.

National television networks broadcast the scenes of the dogs attacking demonstrators and the water from the fire hoses knocking down the schoolchildren. This caused more outrage at how cowardly police officers would use dogs and water to attack black children. Widespread public outrage led the Kennedy administration to intervene more forcefully in negotiations between the white business community and the SCLC. White racists and many black conservatives opposed Dr. King during the Birmingham campaign. White racists didn’t want justice or freedom for black Americans. Both the racists and many black conservatives viewed Dr. King as a troublemaker and an outsider who would cause more problems. Racist whites didn’t want desegregation while conservative black people wanted Dr. King to leave and allow them work behind the scenes to solve the issue. Yet, direct action is necessary to make a solution beyond the racist intimidation of whites and conservatism of the black middle class. Sacrifices must be made for freedom. Malcolm X continued to oppose police brutality in Los Angeles in May of 1963 via a speech. On May 10, the parties announced an agreement to desegregate the lunch counters and other public accommodations in downtown Birmingham, to create a committee to eliminate discriminatory hiring practices, to arrange for the release of jailed protesters, and to establish regular means of communication between black and white leaders. The problem with the agreement was that it was too moderate and lacked a strong enforcement mechanism. Many in the black community opposed the agreement as being too compromising like Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth (whose home was bombed twice and he was beaten by white racists numerous times). He was skeptical about the good faith of Birmingham's power structure from his experience in dealing with them. Parts of the white community reacted violently, because they opposed the agreement. They bombed the Gaston Motel, which housed the SCLC's unofficial headquarters, and the home of King's brother, the Reverend A. D. King on May 11. In response, thousands of blacks used a rebellion. Some people burnt numerous buildings and one of them stabbed and wounded a police officer. Many black people used self-defense against white racists too. On May 20, the U.S. Supreme Court finds Birmingham and any other city segregation ordinance unconstitutional, thus making sit-ins legal. Kennedy prepared to federalize the Alabama National Guard if the need arose. Four months later, on September 15, 1963, a conspiracy of Ku Klux Klan members bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, killing four young girls. The killing of 4 innocent girls once again shown the cruelty of white racism.

The events of Birmingham caused protests in over 100 cities. The March on Washington inspired a nation. In late May of 1963, in the South side of Chicago, black people rebelled after a white police officer shot a fourteen year old black child, who was fleeing the scene of a robbery. Violent clashes between black activists and white workers took place in both Philadelphia and Harlem in successful efforts to integrate state construction projects. On June 6, over a thousand whites attacked a sit-in in Lexington, North Carolina; blacks fought back and one white man was killed. Edwin C. Berry of the National Urban League warned of a complete breakdown in race relations: "My message from the beer gardens and the barbershops all indicate the fact that the Negro is ready for war." In Cambridge, Maryland, a working‐class city on the Eastern Shore, Gloria Richardson of SNCC led a movement that pressed for desegregation but also demanded low‐rent public housing, job‐training, public and private jobs, and an end to police brutality. On June 1, 1963, African Americans Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes were the first black students to graduate from the University of Georgia. They celebrated and people cheered. Hunter would be a doctor and a reporter. On June 11, struggles between blacks and whites in  Cambridge, MD escalated into violent rioting, leading Maryland Governor J. Millard Tawes to declare martial law. When negotiations between Richardson and Maryland officials faltered, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy directly intervened to negotiate a desegregation agreement. Richardson felt that the increasing participation of poor and working-class black people was expanding both the power and parameters of the movement, asserting that "the people as a whole really do have more intelligence than a few of their leaders.ʺ Gloria Richardson would be involved in protests and sit-ins in order to desegregate schools and hospitals in Cambridge, Maryland. John F. Kennedy was very moderate in his Presidency on civil rights. He didn’t want militant demonstrations.

Robert Kennedy on May 24, 1963 had a meeting with black intellectuals from Lorraine Hansberry to James Baldwin on racial issues. Black people criticized Robert Kennedy and the Kennedy administration for not going far enough on civil rights. Both sides didn’t compromise. Nonetheless, the Kennedys ultimately decided that new legislation for equal public accommodations was essential to drive activists "into the courts and out of the streets." The problem with this assumption is that any successful revolution used both the courts and the streets, not just the courts alone. Using the streets is a legitimate instrument of social change. To Robert Kennedy’s credit, he would change by the late 1960’s to be more militant and a powerful voice on issues of race and class. On June 11, 1963, George Wallace, Governor of Alabama, tried to block the integration of the University of Alabama. President John F. Kennedy sent a military force to make Governor Wallace step aside, allowing the enrollment of Vivian Malone Jones and James Hood. That evening, President Kennedy addressed the nation on TV and radio with his historic civil rights speech, where he lamented "a rising tide of discontent that threatens the public safety." He called on Congress to pass new civil rights legislation, and urged the country to embrace civil rights as "a moral our daily lives." In the early hours of June 12, 1963 Medgar Evers, field secretary of the Mississippi NAACP, was assassinated by a member of the Klan. The next week, as promised, on June 19, 1963, President Kennedy submitted his Civil Rights bill to Congress. James Meredith graduated on August 18, 1963. He graduated from the University of Mississippi. By the late 1963, Chicago in about 220,000 protested de facto segregation in schools back in October 22, 1963. Malcolm X gave his famous A Message to the Grassroots speech in Detroit on November 1963. JFK was assassinated in 1963 and a new chapter began. JFK’s unjust assassination made people aware bout the brutality of murder and Dr. King reflected on his mortality too. The Civil Rights Movement became more militant by 1963.

By Timothy

Thursday, June 22, 2017

Alex Jones Fascist Rant: Discharge Constitution & Deport Political Oppon...

Shot while her kids listened

Mourning and marching after the Grenfell fire

Congressional Black Caucus: Trump and His Administration Don’t Care About Black People

A Courageous Nine Year Old Girl

America's Long, Disturbing History of Black People Calling the Police and Ending Up Dead

The Trump's health care bill as a disgrace

Joy DeGruy Publications

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Shirley Verrett, operatic star, sings "Oh Freedom"

Important Facts.

It's totally despicable actions by the cops. They murdered a pregnant black woman in Seattle. The cops could have easily left the location and called mental health experts to assist the woman. They can get relatives to the house. They can also even use non-lethal methods to deal with the situation. Yet, they killed her first and asked questions later. That is the tragedy. There are many stories where white people aimed shotguns at the police and the police do not kill that white person. Charleena Lyles wanted to allow the police to deal with a burglary and she was a victim of being killed in a sick fashion. The system for centuries in America not only have laws that were oppressive and discriminatory. The state has actually used those unjust laws to execute oppression against black people (from the 3/5s clause to the covenant policies in the Midwest and the West). The Sister deserved much more respect than this. The family of the woman is angry and want answers as they should. It is a known fact that Seattle is filled with economic inequality and racism. This is another story about how a black woman was oppressed by evil cowards. I know much of the black heroes in Seattle who fought for civil rights and against police brutality too. We aren't naive. This is a situation where we are at war against police and oligarchical tyranny. DOJ has mentioned Seattle (who is shown as a "progressive" bastion) has having a serious problem in their police department over racial intolerance and corrupt policies. Massive racism and ableism (i.e. bigotry against those with mental health issues and those with any disabilities) exist in Seattle and nationwide. We have no choice, but to resist this tyranny. The current system must be eradicated and replaced with a progressive system filled with justice and true freedom.
Rest in Power Sister Charleena Lyles.
Black Lives Matter

To racists and reactionaries, it is taboo for black people to express legitimate outrage and anger at anti-black murder. Many people are absolutely right that innocent black people are not only murdered, but many pro-cop fanatics scrutinize the victim more than the cop terrorist who inflicted murder against innocent black human lives. The victims' families are always told to unconditionally forgive the brute brutalizing their relatives (within the realm of respectability politics). As black people, we not only know the history of America. We are the victims of American hypocrisy and American oppression. The same person who wrote the Declaration of Independence was a slaveowner and a hypocritical barbarian. Jim Crow was not only evil and filled with discrimination, racism, and lycnhing. It was executed by the state governments for real in order to deny black Americans inherit freedoms. As others have mentioned countless times before, the system is not broken per se. The system, as it is, has been doing its job to oppress black people since the origins of the modern American nation. A system that maintains the myth of police infallibility and oppression is no system that we respect. Valerie Castile has every right to express her frustration and anger at a disgraceful verdict and a cruel judicial system. As other great people have stated, we have to end misogynoir and defend the human rights of black people in general.
RIP Philando Castile.
Black Lives Matter.

The crisis in Central High School (in Little Rock) was about debates in dealing with education. State and local governments in the South promoted segregated schools and the federal government had little involvement. Many schools refused to enforce the Brown decision back then during the late 1950’s. So, conflicts arose. The 1957 Little Rock crisis in Arkansas changed America forever. The situation started when the Little Rock school board had formed a plan to gradually desegregate its schools. It wanted to start with the Central High School. Nine African American schools volunteered to enroll. They were supported by Daisy Bates and these students had excellent grades. Later, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus said that he opposed integration and called out the state National Guard from Arkansas on September 4, 1957. When the nine students came at Central High, the soldiers from the state National Guard blocked their way. One of the nine was Elizabeth Eckford. She said that white racists wanted to lynch her in screaming. Eckford was spat upon by a white racist woman. On the first day, the Little Rock Nine didn’t go into the school. Elizabeth Eckford was brave and this story was shown in the London Times, the Times of India, and the South China Morning Post. Television coverage was shown of these events too. President Eisenhower before this time didn’t provide great leadership on the civil rights movement. He wanted the status quo. He didn’t urge rapid enforcement of the Brown decision. In private, he criticized the Brown decision. It was when the Governor Faubus resisted the will of the federal courts is when he acted. Eisenhower sent federal troops (from the 101st Airborne Division) to Little Rock to protect the students and to enforce the Court’s decision.

This was the first time since Reconstruction that a President of the United States sent federal troops to the South to protect the rights of black citizens. He gave his federal address on TV to enforce federal law. For the whole school year, federal troops stayed in Little Rock. They escorted the nine black students to and from Central High. They protected them on the school ground. Many of the students still experienced harassment and violence from racist students. They had to pass through a gauntlet of spitting, jeering whites to arrive at school on their first day, and to put up with harassment from other students for the rest of the year. Although federal troops escorted the students between classes, the students were teased and even attacked by white students when the soldiers were not around. One of the Little Rock Nine, Minnijean Brown, was suspended for six days in December 1957 for dropping her tray, on which she had a bowl of chili, on the floor and splashing two white boys, after several chairs had been pushed in her way, withdrawn, and then pushed in her way again, in the cafeteria. Later, in February 1958, a group of girls threw a purse filled with combination locks at Minniejean. She responded by calling the girls "white trash" and she was immediately expelled. That expulsion was unjust. Minnijean Brown-Trickey continues to fight for civil rights and human rights to this very day. Ernest Green was a senior and was the first African American to graduate from Central High School. Southern politicians still found slick ways to not comply with the Brown decision. The journey for freedom continued.

There is news of a U.S. plane shooting down a Syrian aircraft. This is the first time this has happened since the days of Kosovo during the 1990's. Later, Russia withdrew collaboration with the U.S. on dealing with the Syrian crisis. Russian Defense Ministry says this is an “act of aggression” or an act of war in other words. In the middle of April, Donald Trump gave his generals “total authority” to conduct military strikes in Syria without his approval. Also, Russia says that they will treat U.S. military aircraft as targets if they travel to the west of the Euphrates River. This is the world that Trump has created. Trump is a militarist. Trump's irresponsible foreign policy actions are outright dangerous. On a sad note, the rapper Brother Prodigy (Albert Johnson) passed away recently of sickle cell anemia today. He was 42 years old. It's shocking news. That is a serious illness in the African American community. Since I was a kid, I knew about it. Many of our people deal with it all of the time. He was born in Long Island and was raised in Queens. He is known for his lyricism. I send prayers and condolences to his family and friends. Of course, I don't agree with some of the language that some rappers use, but during this time, we all send heartfelt condolences to his relatives and his children. This is a time to honor the value of human life and to send respect to a Brother who recently passed away.
RIP Brother Prodigy.

By Timothy


Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Tis the Season for Black Injustice: Summer and Systemic Racism

Appropiating the Appropriated: How Contemporary America Continues to Castrate Blackness through Language

Bill Maher's Racism


Monday, June 19, 2017


From Welfare to US Congress, Rep. Gwen Moore's Fight for the 'RISE Out of Poverty Act'

A pregnant black woman killed by the police (a total injustice)

Don't blame the left for violence in America

Don Cheadle to Bring Story of First Black Millionaire on Wall Street to Theaters – Atlanta Black Star

The ACLU Is Joining With Allies to Fight Mega-Corporations in the Battle to Save Net Neutrality

More News about Consciousness

An Olympic engagement

Important Civil Rights History.

Robert F. Williams was a heroic Brother who not only stood up for self-defense in the South. He inspired many movements from the Black Panthers to SNCC. Back then (during the late 1950’s), Jim Crow was not only harsh, but murderous. Many people were murdered, raped, homes bombed, etc. as a product of the acts from pro-Jim Crow white racist terrorists. In many cases, the Klan worked with the local police in open collaborations to oppress black citizens. The violence of the Klan harmed many efforts of Civil Rights activists. Therefore, many black organizations (in the South) started to use armed self-defense to protect themselves, their families, and their communities. Self-defense is a human right. Robert F. Williams of the North Carolina chapter of the NAACP started to promote self-defense during the late 1950’s. He rebuilt the NAACP chapter after the Klan terrorized black people in North Carolina. He wanted a newer, working class membership to be armed and defend themselves against attackers. When Klan nightriders attacked the home of NAACP member Dr. Albert Perry in October, Williams’ militia exchanged gunfire with the stunned Klansmen. The Klansmen retreated. During the next day, the city council held an emergency session. They passed an ordinance banning KKK motorcades. Later, the Lumbee Native Americans in 1958 successful led an armed standoff against the Klan (i.e. the Battle of Hayes Pond). This caused Klan leader James W. “Catfish” Cole to be convicted of incitement to riot. Many white men sexually raped black women in Monroe, NC. The white men were acquitted. This caused Williams to say in the United Press International that he would “meet violence with violence" as a policy. Williams' declaration was quoted on the front page of The New York Times, and The Carolina Times considered it "the biggest civil rights story of 1959." NAACP National chairman Roy Wilkins immediately suspended Williams from his position, but the Monroe organizer won support from numerous NAACP chapters across the country. Later, Wilkins was so wrong that he caused a campaign to fight against Williams. The suspension was upheld. The NAACP convention nonetheless passed a resolution which stated: "We do not deny, but reaffirm the right of individual and collective self-defense against unlawful assaults."   Martin Luther King Jr. argued for Williams' removal, but Ella Baker and WEB Dubois both publicly praised the Monroe leader's position. Robert F. Williams and his wife Mabel Williams continued to fight for justice in the Monroe movement. They became national heroes. Both Williamses published “The Crusader” which was a nationally circulated newsletter starting in 1960. Robert F. Williams wrote the influential book entitled, “Negroes With Guns” in 1962. In that book, he called for “flexibility in the freedom struggle” and self-defense. He knew of legal tactics. He worked to defend a black child in the Kissing Case of 1958 and he supported lunch counter sit-ins in Monroe back in the day too. He believed in self-defense as a complementary tactics along with nonviolence. He supported the Freedom Rides. SNCC leaders Ella Baker and James Forman invited him to participate. He campaigned for peace with Cuba. The FBI targeted him and falsely accused him of kidnapping as he was cleared of all charges in 1976. Meanwhile, armed self-defense continued discreetly in the Southern movement with such figures as SNCC's Amzie Moore, Hartman Turnbow, and Fannie Lou Hamer all willing to use arms to defend their lives from nightriders. Taking refuge from the FBI in Cuba, the Williamses broadcast the radio show "Radio Free Dixie" throughout the eastern United States via Radio Progresso beginning in 1962. During this period, Williams advocated guerilla warfare against racist institutions, and saw the large ghetto rebellions of the era as a manifestation of his strategy. University of North Carolina historian Walter Rucker has written that "the emergence of Robert F Williams contributed to the marked decline in anti-black racial violence in the US…After centuries of anti-black violence, African-Americans across the country began to defend their communities aggressively – employing overt force when necessary. This in turn evoked in whites real fear of black vengeance…" This opened up space for African-Americans to use nonviolent demonstration with less fear of deadly reprisal. Of the many civil rights activists who share this view, the most prominent was Rosa Parks. Parks gave the eulogy at Williams' funeral in 1996, praising him for "his courage and for his commitment to freedom," and concluding that "The sacrifices he made, and what he did, should go down in history and never be forgotten."

Rest in Power Brother Robert F. Williams.

The Freedom Rides took place in 1961. They represented a transitional phrase of the Civil Rights Movement. These rides wanted to enforce existing law that stated that it was legal to integrate interstate buses into the segregated Southern United States. The Supreme Court in 1960 from Boynton v. Virginia made it clear that segregation was unconstitutional for passengers engaged in interstate travel. It was organized by CORE. Also, many CORE members did something similar back during the 1940’s. The first Freedom Ride of the 1960’s existed on May 4, 1961. They left Washington, D.C. and were scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17. This was an execution of social activism beyond using the court system to fight for justice. The Freedom Rides were made up of black and white people who wanted to travel into the Deep South to also integrate seating patterns on buses and desegregate bus terminals. They wanted to desegregate restrooms and water fountains. This was a dangerous journey, but the Freedom Riders were courageous in their deeds. When the Freedom Riders came into Anniston, Alabama, one bus was firebombed. Passengers escaped the bus to save their lives. In Birmingham, Alabama, an FBI informant reported that Public Safety Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor gave Ku Klux Klan members fifteen minutes to attack an incoming group of freedom riders before having police "protect" them. The riders were severely beaten and it was a totally horrible experience. James Peck, a white activist, was beaten so badly that he required fifty stitches to his head. White racists executed violence against Freedom Riders again in Montgomery, Alabama. The Freedom Riders followed in the footsteps of Rosa Parks and rode in an integrated Greyhound bus from Birmingham. They were protesting interstate bus segregation in peace. Still, they experience violence by a white mob in Montgomery. The large, white mob attacked them since they used activism to fight for justice. They caused an enormous, 2-hour long riot which resulted in 22 injuries, five of whom were hospitalized. This violence in Anniston and Birmingham temporarily stopped the rides. Yet, SNCC activists from Nashville like Diane Nash brought in new riders to continue the journey from Birmingham to New Orleans.  In Montgomery, Alabama, at the Greyhound Bus Station, a mob charged another bus load of riders, knocking John Lewis unconscious with a crate and smashing Life photographer Don Urbrock in the face with his own camera. A dozen men surrounded James Zwerg, a white student from Fisk University, and beat him in the face with a suitcase, knocking out his teeth. By May 24, 1961, the Freedom Rides rode into Jackson, Mississippi. They were arrested for “breaching the peace" by using "white only" facilities. New freedom rides were organized by many different organizations and continued to flow into the South. As riders arrived in Jackson, they were arrested. By the end of summer, more than 300 had been jailed in Mississippi. Many of the Freedom Rides suffered harsh conditions in jail. Some male prisoners were forced to do hard labor in 100 degree heat. The cells were filthy. Some were transferred to the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman. Some of the men were beaten. Some were suspended by wrist breakers from the walls. Many of them couldn’t breathe by the cells shut tight on hot days. The Kennedy administration was so disgraceful during this time that some of them were openly hostile to the Freedom Rides. They compromised with the racist Southerners by saying that the Freedom Rides would travel and do nothing when the Riders were arrested. Support for the Freedom Riders grew. Pressure caused the Kennedy administration to order the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to issue a new desegregation order. When the new ICC rule took effect on November 1, 1961, passengers were permitted to sit wherever they chose on the bus; "white" and "colored" signs came down in the terminals; separate drinking fountains, toilets, and waiting rooms were consolidated; and lunch counters began serving people regardless of skin color. The student movement involved such celebrated figures as John Lewis, a single-minded activist; James Lawson, the revered "guru" of nonviolent theory and tactics; Diane Nash, an articulate and intrepid public champion of justice; Bob Moses, pioneer of voting registration in Mississippi; and James Bevel, a fiery preacher and charismatic organizer, strategist, and facilitator. Other prominent student activists included Charles McDew, Bernard Lafayette, Charles Jones, Lonnie King, Julian Bond, Hosea Williams, and Kwame Ture. After the Freedom Rides, the young people of the Civil Rights Movement developed their own independence and their own unique personalities politically.

The 1963 March on Washington, D.C. was one of the most important parts of the Civil Rights Movement. It was a march for jobs and freedom. It was a march that had people of many races to fight for civil and economic rights. It started by a long history. A. Philip Randolph had a dream to march on Washington for black people working in integrated industrial jobs back in the 1940’s. By 1961, he and Bayard Rustin including others would plan for the March on Washington during the 1960’s. Both men would form a wide ranging alliance of civil rights, labor, and religious organizations to come together in order to advance justice. During the 1960’s, Jim Crow laws were very pervasive in the South and in parts of the Midwest. Discrimination existed. Police brutality and economic exploitation were in epidemic levels. Black people feared for their lives literally because of racist terrorism in America. There was a Prayer pilgrimage for Freedom march held on May 17, 1957 in the Lincoln Memorial to promote equality. Now, times have changed. 1863 was the 100th year anniversary of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln. People from the NAACP, the SCLC, SNCC, the Urban League, CORE, etc. put their differences aside to unite in the March on Washington movement. Violent confrontations broke out in the South: in Cambridge, Maryland; Pine Bluff, Arkansas; Goldsboro, North Carolina; Somerville, Tennessee; Saint Augustine, Florida; and across Mississippi. Most of these incidents involved white people retaliating against nonviolent demonstrators. Some people (who supported the March on Washington) wanted total civil disobedience in D.C., some wanted to focus nationwide on issues, some wanted speeches, and everyone was interested in the movement. During this time, JFK was criticized by many black leaders as not going far enough on civil rights. Rustin and Randolph planned for the march as early as December 1961. Union leaders joined. By May of 1963, Randolph called for the March officially. In June 1963, six men met in NYC to get funds and messaging for the movement. They were A. Philip Randolph, Dr. King, Roy Wilkins, John Lewis, Whitney Young, and James Farmer. Some didn’t want Rustin to lead the march, because he was a former Communist (ironically, he would be very anti-Communist before he passed away) and he was a homosexual, but the Big Six allowed him to lead as a massive organizer.  With Randolph concentrating on building the march's political coalition, Rustin built and led the team of two hundred activists and organizers who publicized the march and recruited the marchers, coordinated the buses and trains, provided the marshals, and set up and administered all of the logistic details of a mass march in the nation's capital. President Kennedy met the Big Six in June 22, 1963. He initially didn’t want the March on Washington for fear of violence and reducing the chance of the Civil Rights bill to be passed. Yet, Dr. King wouldn’t back down and JFK reluctantly supported the march. The catch was that Kennedy issued a program to close liquor stores and do other silly actions in preparation for the March. Rustin and other planners issued a button, phone, and advertising campaign to get people to go into Washington, D.C. The goals of the March were clear. They wanted strong civil rights legislation, an end to segregation, a public works job program, a higher minimum wage, labor rights, ending police brutality, and an end to discrimination. Many of the haters like Hoover and the hypocrite Strom Thurmond slandered the March as Communist inspired, but people from across political spectrum were in the movement. People arrived by the thousands from road, rail, and air to Washington. D.C on August 28, 1963. The March was a large success. It inspired the Civil Rights Movement. It inspired the Civil Rights Act to be passed by Congress. There were controversies though. Malcolm X was in D.C. He accused the March of being co-opted by white establishment figures (especially liberal establishment figures) in order to pacify the black freedom movement. He called it the “farce on Washington.” John Lewis was censored in some of his speech that was to really criticize the Kennedy administration. John Lewis refused to do so at first, but A. Philip Randolph told him that he waited his whole life for this moment. He censored it out of respect that he had for Randolph. James Baldwin didn’t speak as he was prevented to do so, because of his political views. Also, the March prevented many women from speaking. Anna Harold Hedgeman tried to stop this, but even some members of the movement were stone cold sexists. Daisy Bates and Josephine Baker spoke. Gloria Richardson had her microphone taken away from her when she said “hello”. Rosa Parks and Lena Horne were prevented to speak too, which is disgraceful. Mahalia Jackson sang music including Marian Anderson. Celebrities from Sidney Poitier to Jackie Robinson including Bill Russell were there. Roy Wilkins gave condolences to the recent passing of WEB DuBois. Dr. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech outlined his views. It wasn’t just about hope. It was a speech that criticized American society filled with discrimination, racism, voting rights deprivation, and police brutality. It was a call for progressive change in America.  President Kennedy praised the march and met with the leaders afterwards. The March on Washington gave new life to the Civil Rights Movement. It was a time of hope. Estimates of the number of participants varied from 200,000 to 300,000 people. The  most widely cited estimate of the amount of people in the march is 250,000 people. Observers estimated that 75–80% of the marchers were black. The march was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history. The same goals of the March on Washington are the same goals that we are fighting to this very day. Legal advances since then have been made, but we have a very long way to go in terms of economic issues (from poverty, lax wage, housing, educational issues, and economic inequality) in our communities. The March is a reminder of what the future can be.

By the end of the 1960’s, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other heroic activists fought for the Poor Peoples Campaign and for the Memphis sanitation striking movement. The Poor Peoples Campaign started in 1967. It was about a multiracial coalition (made up of African Americans, Latino Americans, Asian Americans, poor whites, etc.) that wanted to march to Washington, D.C. to desire the federal government to send billions of dollars to abolish poverty in American society. It wanted an economic bill of rights, economic rights for poor Americans, a guaranteed annual income, adequate housing, and a commitment to full employment. Dr. King said that the Vietnam War neglected the needs of the poor and that war harmed the vision of the Great Society. Welfare rights activists and Marian Wright Edelman contributed heavily to the Poor People’s Campaign. Dr. King also wanted civil disobedience, if necessary work stoppages, to fight injustices. The movement publicly announced the Poor People’s Campaign in during early December 1967. Not everyone in the SCLC agreed with this. Jesse Jackson wanted other priorities. Rustin opposed civil disobedience. Yet, Dr. King continued with the plans. He wanted people to arrive in Washington, D.C. by May 2, 1968. The SCLC announced the campaign on December 4, 1967. King delivered a speech which identified "a kind of social insanity which could lead to national ruin." In January 1968, the SCLC created and distributed an "Economic Fact Sheet" with statistics explaining why the campaign was necessary. King avoided providing specific details about the campaign initially and attempted to redirect media attention to the values at stake. The Poor People’s Campaign held firm to the movement’s commitment to non-violence. “We are custodians of the philosophy of non-violence,” said King at a press conference. “And it has worked.” King originally wanted the Poor People's Campaign to start in Quitman County, Mississippi because of the intense and visible economic disparity there. In February 1968, King announced specific demands: $30 billion for antipoverty, full employment, guaranteed income, and the annual construction of 500,000 affordable residences. Dr. King visited Marks, Mississippi to see starving black children, and poverty in a vicious way. The FBI wanted to disrupt and monitor the campaign,because they oppose Dr. King's progressive views. Nixon didn’t want the demands to exist. Dr. King courageously moved forward. While this was going on, the Memphis sanitation strike continued. For a long time, Memphis was a victim of racism and economic discrimination. Some of the worst anti-black violence in American history took place in Memphis (like the 1866 anti-black riot in Memphis). By the 1960’s, the conservative mayor Henry Loeb refused to promote public unions. Black workers faced discrimination, lax wages, and horrible conditions in various jobs. Thomas Oliver tried to form a local union. He was restricted to do so. By February 1, 1968, 2 black sanitation workers were killed by a city truck for trying to escape the rain. This changed everything. A strike soon existed. Maxine Smith, T.O. Jones, James Lawson, Bill Lucy, and so many people joined forces to fight for their human rights. The strike lasted for over 2 months. Cornelia Crenshaw and other people were leaders in the Memphis sanitation workers movement too. The more anti-nonviolence Invaders wanted to join and they did. They disagreed with many of the nonviolent activists (like Rev. James Lawson), but they desired the same goal which is justice for the striking workers.

Rev. James Lawson was a pacifist and a minister who was totally committed. Many of the strikers wore “I Am a Man” posters to show the word that they are men. The police used police brutality against protesters. Dr. Martin Luther King came into Memphis on March 18, 1968. Many of his allies didn’t want him to go, but he did since if the strike is successful, the Poor People’s Campaign would be successful in his mind. A snowstorm prevented another march. The march came on March 28, 1968. We know now that provocateurs caused violence and the violence by the police existed too. Dr. King and others left. People were maced and filled with tear gas. The media in many cases falsely blamed Dr. King for the chaos and Dr. King vowed to do another march. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was told to go to Mason Church to speak on April 3, 1968. He was tired, but the crowd was waiting for him. He came into the Church to give his famous “I Have Been to the Mountaintop” speech. It was a great speech and he moved the crowd. One day later, he was assassinated at 6 pm. on April 4, 1968. Rebellions happened in over 100 U.S. cities and the strike would end on April 16, 1968, which caused an agreement to be reached. The striking workers celebrated and a new era would exist. Future actions of workers would be successful in Charleston, South Carolina by 1969 (of hospital workers) and in Atlanta by 1970. The Poor People’s Campaign continued in June 1968. It was a failure (as Congress refused to send strong legislation), but it raised awareness on the problems of poverty and economic exploitation. Programs that helped the poor were further created. Resurrection City was the encampment in D.C. that provided awareness of poverty during the Poor Peoples Campaign. It soon ended when government authorities shut the camp down. People were forced to leave the Washington Mall. Ralph Abernathy led the Poor Peoples Campaign after Dr. King was assassinated. The Poor Peoples Campaign represented the same issues we deal with today from housing discrimination, economic exploitation, educational problems, poverty, and economic inequality. The rise of 1968 outlined the end of one era of Black American history. A new era started, which was the Post Civil Rights Era (from 1968 to 2008).

By Timothy

Saturday, June 17, 2017

World War II Research

The African American Story Part 5 (World War II)

Image result for World War 2 african americanImage: Caption follows
Image result for World War 2 african american womenImage result for World War 2 african american

The African American Story Part 5 (African Americans in World War II)

During World War II, it was a national and international affair. Nations formed alliances to fight for the power of the Earth's resources during World War II. Black Americans were in the middle of the global conflict. Many of our people were drafted into that war. That is why many of our grandparents and great-grandparents participated in World War II. Segregated units would fight in the battles. Black people fought fascism overseas and against racism at home. So, WWII signified battling multiple battles domestically and outside America. Over 2.5 million black men registered for the draft and many served as draftees or volunteers in all of the branches of the Armed Forces during the war. Black men and Black women fought with distinction. In fact, more than 12,000 black men, who served in the 92nd Division, received citations and were decorated for their effort. The all-black 761st Tank Battalion received the Presidential Unit Citation for “extraordinary heroism.” Also, black women were involved in WWII too. Many black women were in the military including nurses. Their heroism will be mentioned here too. Many African American G.I.s were in concentration camps and many black people were victims of the evil Holocaust (which was about the Nazis' evil action of the extermination of millions of human beings). Many labor strikes existed (among workers of diverse colors) to fight for workers' rights during this time period. There was a class struggle for economic justice back then. Racial riots happened nationwide during the 1940's from Detroit to Chicago. Hollywood grew. Jazz grew and the Second Great Migration flourished during this time period as well. The Tuskegee Airmen helped to defeat the Axis Powers and numerous World War II (including Korean War) veterans would go onward to be part of the Civil Rights movement. WWII and its aftermath ironically propelled a new inspiration to make the Civil Rights movement to achieve more successes. World War II was a long, very bloody war. It was destructive and took more human lives than any other war in human history. War shouldn't be sugarcoated. We honor the sacrifice of heroes who defeated fascism. We are motivated to fight for justice in our time during the 21st century.

Still, we rise.

Image result for african americans and the ethiopian warImage result for african americans and the ethiopian war

The Beginning and Black Units

From the beginning, African Americans (both black men and black women) fought in every American war. African Americans back then knew of the contradiction of fighting for freedom overseas while being unjustly denied freedom at home in the United States of America. In this situation, African Americans have shown courage and strength. Before World War II, black Americans fought against fascists in Ethiopia and against the Fascists plus the Nazis in Spain during the 1930’s. The U.S. government didn’t fight Italy or fascists invading Ethiopia, but African Americans did so independently in order for them to defend freedom. Back during October 4, 1935, fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia. Ethiopia was the only non-colonized African country at that time other than Liberia. So, African Americans were inspired to defend Ethiopia. This was personal for us. Black people raised money for medical supplies and many volunteered to fight for the nation. Ethiopia at first was overpowered by the Italian forces using mustard gas and other advanced weaponry. Yet, Ethiopia soon defeated the Italians years later. Many years later, Haile Selassie I would comment on the efforts of black Americans:

"We can never forget the help Ethiopia received from Negro Americans during the crisis. ... It moved me to know that Americans of African descent did not abandon their embattled brothers, but stood by us.”

The Spanish Civil War was about the fascist Franco and his forces fighting against the pro-Republican forces of the secular Spanish Republic. Many African Americans volunteered to fight for the Republican Spain. Many black Americans had Communist ideals while serving in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Many black people like Vaughn Love had rightfully said that fascism is the enemy of all “black aspirations.” Oliver Law was an African American activist and World War I veteran who also fought in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade during the Spanish Civil War too. He is believed to be the first African American officer to command an integrated unit of soldiers. James Peck fought against the fascists in Spain. He was a black man. He was a pilot in the Spanish Republican Air Force. He shot down fascist airplanes. A black woman named Salaria Kea was a young African American nurse from Harlem Hospital who served during the Spanish Civil War too. She was one of the two only African American female volunteers in the midst of the war-torn Spanish Republican areas. When Salaria came back from Spain she wrote the pamphlet "A Negro Nurse in Spain" and tried to raise funds for the beleaguered Spanish Republic. We honor the bravery and sacrifice of these heroic black men and black women. Now, we focus on World War II.

After World War I, the League of Nations existed. It failed, because of many reasons. Many nations refused to abide by its rules and regulations. Its rules were weakly enforced. There was the rise of Hitler and Stalin who advanced authoritarian regimes. Japan also used imperialist aggression against China and other Asian countries. By 1939, Hitler invaded Poland unjustly and illegally, which started World War II. WWII was the bloodiest and most deadly war in human history. More people died during WWII than any other war in human history. Hitler was an evil racist, a liar, and a murderer. He and his Nazis used imperialism for the sake of stealing mineral resources, to promote genocide, to advance racism, and to form an evil worldwide empire. Hitler, Franco, Mussolini, and Tojo united into the nefarious Axis Powers. They spread their evil worldwide. In America, most Americans back then were isolationists. Most Americans didn’t want to be involved in another war, because of the destructiveness of WWI and their view of promoting solely focusing on American affairs. Recent research has found that some Americans knew of the Holocaust and still was hesitant in condemning the Holocaust (which is disgraceful). Pearl Harbor changed everything. Japan attacked American military forces on December 7, 1941.

Image result for doris miller world war 2Image result for doris miller world war 2

Many Americans died. There were many heroes during that deadly day. One hero was a black man named Doris Miller. He was a Navy mess attendant. He had voluntarily manned an anti-aircraft gun and fired at the Japanese anti-aircraft, despite of him having no prior training in the weapons’ use. He saved many lives. Later, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz pinned the Navy Cross on Doris Miller at a ceremony on board a warship in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This happened on May 27, 1942. He was the first black American to receive the Navy Cross because of his actions during the Pearl Harbor attack. Immediately, America declared war against Nazi Germany. The world soon changed and Franklin Delano Roosevelt overnight was overly involved in WWII (previously, he was covertly involved via the Lend Lease program where American forces would send money and supplies to Allied forces like those of the UK). By this time, the war was in the beginning. After the Pearl Harbor incident, the majority of Americans supported American involvement in World War II. Many black Americans hoped that defeating fascism overseas would defeat fascism and racism at home in America. Many black people opposed the draft, went to jail for rejecting the draft, etc. The journey of World War II for African Americans would change the world forever.

Image result for african american  ww2Image result for african american women working ww2


Over 1.9 million black Americans served in uniform during World War II. They served in segregated units. About 75 percent of the soldiers who served in the European theater of the war as truckers for the Red Ball Express and kept Allied supply lines open were African Americans. 708 African Americans were killed in combat during World War II. By June of 1940, the Navy had 4,007 African American personnel. That represented 2.3 percent of its total strength of nearly 170,000. One month after Pearl Harbor, African Americans being in the Navy were 5,026. Back then, many were restricted to work as steward’s mates. This changed slowly. The destroyer escort Mason was the only Navy vessel during World War II with a totally black crew who were not cooks or waiters. In 1995, 11 surviving crew members were all given belated recognition and letters of commendation from Navy Secretary John Dalton for having braved harsh weather and quickly welding the cracks in their ship so they could continue escorting support ships to England. The draft existed and there was a high enlistment rate in the U.S. Army for African Americans. African Americans also served in all branches of the American military. There was still massive discrimination and racism in the military. During the early part of the war, most African Americans never saw combat and most were not in the position that was high up in the military. Black women and Black men, who were in the military, were segregated at church services, in transportation and canteens, in barracks, and even in parades. Black men suffered such bad treatment in many cases that African American soldiers in many cases were treated worse than German prisoners of war.

That is a disgrace. Black women were given separate training, bad living quarters, and rations. Black nurses suffered both racism and sexism. They still cared for wounded soldiers and served magnificently. Soldiers of color including black soldiers served their country with distinction during World War II. About 125,000 African Americans were overseas in World War II. There were many segregated units. Many of them included the Tuskegee Airmen, the 761st Tank Battalion, and the 452nd Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion. They performed greatly in combat situations. Native Americans and Asian American suffered racism and discrimination in the military too. Asian Americans were integrated with European American soldiers. The first Chinese American USMC (or Marine) officer was Wilbur Carl Sze. He was commissioned as second lieutenant in December of 1943. Native Americans in many cases served as code talkers to pass coded messages throughout the military during World War II. This story is shown in a movie I saw back in 2002 called Windtalkers. Black people were not accepted into the Marines until 1942.

During World War II, like in previous eras, racial tensions were extremely high. Many black people excelled in jazz and other economic endeavors, but the system of oppression still existed in America. Racial riots and racial violence existed in Detroit, Mobile (Alabama), Chicago, Philadelphia, and other places nationwide during the 1940’s. During World War II, a lot of African Americans worked in industrial jobs. Many racists falsely accused black people of stealing jobs and placed black people as scapegoats for labor and economic issues. There were many immigrants in Northern and Midwestern plus Western cities who had such jobs too. Many resources were scarce and competition for resources intensified. Racial riots were the harshest during this era in Detroit during 1943. In June 20, 1943, black people and white people were found in the Belle Isle Park to escape the summer heat. Later, fights between black people and white people existed. It spread into widespread riots over false rumors of rape and murder. Later, white people with the aid of the police came into Detroit African American neighborhoods to attack black people at random. Mobs surrounded streetcars in Detroit to beat up innocent black people. 2 days later, 25 black people and 9 white people were killed. In June 15, rioting happened in Beaumont, Texas. A white woman accused a black man of raping her. Then, white racists destroyed homes, restaurants, and other buildings in black neighborhoods.

Over 100 homes were destroyed. The mayor caused the city to be under martial law with the help of the Texas National Guard. In Harlem in 943, there was a rebellion of black people who were tired of racism, police brutality, and discrimination. This was after a white police officer in NYC injured an African American whom he arrested. In May 23, 1946, black workers in Mobile, Alabama were assaulted by white racists. These black workers just wanted to work in the Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company in Mobile, Alabama. The FEPC wanted the plant to desegregate the workforce in Alabama. There were the rioting in Los Angeles (during the 1940’s) where racists assaulted Latino Americans with zoot suits especially, black people, Filipinos, and others (which was called the Zoot Suit Riots). This happened in June of 1943 in Los Angeles, California. The riot appeared to trigger similar attacks that year by whites against Latinos in Chicago, San Diego, Oakland, Evansville (in Indiana), Philadelphia, and New York City. In 1946, police and other authorities shot at windows and destroyed the property of innocent black people in Columbia, Tennessee.

There were blue discharges during World War II as well. This was another form of discrimination against African American soldiers. Blue discharges were discharges from the military without honor. It wasn’t honorable. It wasn’t dishonorable. It was equivalent to being fired from the military. Black troops disproportionately experienced blue discharges during WWII. They were created in 1916. 48,603 blue discharges were issued by the Army from December 1, 1941 to June 30, 1945. 10,806 were issued to African Americans. This accounts for 22.2% of all blue discharges, when African Americans made up 6.5% of the Army in that time frame. Blue discharge recipients had faced many difficulties obtaining employment. They were routinely denied the benefits of the G.I. Bill by the Veterans Administration (VA). By October 1945, Black-interest newspaper The Pittsburgh Courier launched a crusade against the discharge and its abuses. Calling the discharge "a vicious instrument that should not be perpetrated against the American Soldier", the Courier rebuked the Army for "allowing prejudiced officers to use it as a means of punishing Negro soldiers who do not like specifically unbearable conditions.”  The Courier printed instructions on how to appeal a blue discharge and warned its readers not to quickly accept a blue ticket out of the service because of the negative effect it would likely have on their lives. The House Committee on Military Affairs held hearings in response to the press crusade, issuing a report in 1946 that sharply criticized its use and the VA for discriminating against blue discharge holders. Congress discontinued the blue discharge in 1947, but the VA continued its practice of denying G. I. Bill benefits to blue-tickets.

Image result for the tuskegee airmenImage result for the tuskegee airmen

The Tuskegee Airmen

Courage and sacrifice define the Tuskegee Airmen. They were a group of military pilots who fought during World War II. They were active in the military throughout the 1940's. The Tuskegee program officially started on June 1941 with the 99th Pursuit Squadron at Tuskegee University. It had a unit of 47 officials and 429 enlisted men. One leader of the Tuskegee Airmen was Captain Benjamin O. Davis Jr. (who was the commander of the Tuskegee Airmen 332nd Fighter Group. He flew his P-47 Thunderbolt in Sicily). These men experienced racism and oppression, but they performed magnificently during the war. Mary McLeod Bethune and so many unsung heroes advanced the program to cause the Tuskegee Airmen to exist. Walter White of the NAACP, A. Philip Randolph, and Judge William H. Hastie wanted black men to be military aviators. So, in 1939, the federal government sent money to fund civilian flight schools to train African Americans. The Civilian Pilot Training Program allowed African Americans from colleges and universities to join the Tuskegee Airmen movement. Tuskegee Institute allowed many members to fly as well. The first class of black pilot prepared to do so in July 19, 1941. They were trained rigorously. They studied flying, navigation and meteorology. The first African Americans to get their silver wings and graduate was on the date of March 7, 1942. The Tuskegee Army Base was segregated and had many black pilots. The Tuskegee Airmen were in 9 different squadrons like the 332nd Fighter Group, the 99th, 100th, 301th, 302nd Fighter Squadrons, and the 616th, 617th, 618th, and 619th Bombardment Squadrons (they flew medium two engine bombers).  When the pilots of the 332nd Fighter Group painted the tails of their P-47s and later, P-51s, red, the nickname "Red Tails" was coined. The red markings that distinguished the Tuskegee Airmen included red bands on the noses of P-51s as well as a red rudder; the P-51B and D Mustangs flew with similar color schemes, with red propeller spinners, yellow wing bands and all-red tail surfaces. Many of them were navigators, bombardiers, mechanics, instructors, crew chiefs, nurses, cooks, and other supporters of pilots. All black military pilots trained near Tuskegee Alabama at Moton Field in the Tuskegee Army Air Field. Jim Crow existed, so they were segregated.

Image result for the tuskegee airmen

The Tuskegee program was a successful endeavor and even First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt flew with the African American chief civilian instructor C. Alfred “Chief” Anderson on March of 1941. Anderson flew since 1929. Eleanor Roosevelt gave a loan to help build Moton Field. The loan was of $175,000. The 99th Squadron was involved in combat in April of 1943. They attacked an island on the Mediterranean Sea to clear lanes for the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943. By June 2, the combat mission was flown by the 99th. They moved into Sicily. They received a Distinguished Unit Citation for its actions in combat. Many of the Tuskegee Airmen were used as convoys to protect aircraft. Many of them shot down many Nazi aircraft including jets throughout Europe from France to Italy. The 332nd flew missions in Sicily, Anzio, Normandy, the Rhineland, the Po Valley and Rome-Arno and other places. Pilots of the 99th once set a record for destroying five enemy aircraft in less than four minutes. The Tuskegee Airmen shot down three German jets in a single day. In all, 992 pilots were trained in Tuskegee from 1941-46. 355 were deployed overseas, and 84 lost their lives in accidents or combat.

On March 24, 1945, the 332nd were involved in the longest bomber escort mission of the war. They shot down three of the new German ME-262 jet fighters and damaged 5 others without losing any of their own bombers or planes. The Tuskegee Airmen included some of the best pilots of the war. After the war in 1949, the 332nd Fighter Wing took first place in a shooting competition. It took place in Las Vegas, Nevada. The pilots were Capt. Alva Temple, Lts. Harry Stewart, James Harvey III and Herbert Alexander. Lt. Harvey said, "We had a perfect score. Three missions, two bombs per plane. We didn't guess at anything, we were good." They received congratulations from the Governor of Ohio, and Air Force commanders across the nation. Many famous Tuskegee Airmen included Edward C. Gleed of Lawrence, Kansas, Robert W. Williams, William H. Holloman, Ronald W. Reeves, Christopher W. Newman, Edward A. Gibbs, General Daniel “Chappie” James Jr., Marion Rodgers, and Walter M. Downs. Many of them would later work in NORAD, NASA, etc. The Tuskegee Airmen’s actions definitely contributed to the ending of the segregation of the military by 1948 (via the Executive Order of President Harry S. Truman called E.O. 9981). The excellence of the Tuskegee Airmen will always be remembered.

Image result for battle of the bulge black soldiersImage result for battle of the bulge black soldiers

Other Stories of Service

During the Battle of the Bulge (which was one of the last offensives of the Nazis and the Nazis were defeated) during December of 1944, General Eisenhower was very short of replacement troops for existing all-white companies. So, he made the decision to allow 2,000 black servicemen volunteers to serve in segregated platoons under the command of white lieutenants to replenish these companies. These platoons would serve with distinction and according to an Army survey in the summer of 1945, 84% were ranked "very well" and 16% were ranked "fairly well". No black platoon received a ranking of "poor" by those white officers or white soldiers that fought with them. Unfortunately, these platoons were often subject to racist treatment by white military units in occupied Germany and were quickly sent back to their old segregated units after the end of hostilities in Germany. Despite their protests, these brave African American soldiers ended the war in their old non-combat service units. Though largely forgotten after the war, the temporary experiment with black combat troops proved a success - a small, but important step toward permanent integration during the Korean War. A total of 708 African Americans were killed in combat during World War II. There is the picture of an African American Battery A of the 452nd AAA (or Anti-Aircraft Artillery) Battalion on November 9, 1945. In 1945, Frederick C. Branch became the first African-American United States Marine Corps officer. There is another picture of African American soldiers in Burma reading President Truman’s Proclamation of Victory in Europe on May 9, 1945. In 1965, Marcelite J. Harris (who was born in Houston, Texas) became the first female African American United States Air Force officer. On January 13, 1997, President Bill Clinton (in a White House ceremony) awarded the nation’s highest military honor, which is the Medal of Honor, to seven African American servicemen who had served during World War II.

Image result for Double VImage result for Double V

Double V

The Double V campaign was one of the most important campaigns of World War II. The Double V movement was a slogan. Its meaning was that it wanted black Americans to fight for democracy abroad and in America in order for racism to end in the States. The V victory sign was a double meaning. People who endorsed the Double V campaign wanted victory against the Axis Powers (along with their evils of aggression, slavery, and tyranny) and another victory for African Americans in America. It first appeared in the African American newspaper called the Pittsburgh Courier on February 7, 1942. The slogan started in a response to the letter, “Should I Sacrifice to Live 'Half American?'" written by 26-year-old reader James G. Thompson (He was from Wichita, Kansas). Pitched as "Democracy – Double Victory, At Home - Abroad", the campaign highlighted the risks African Americans took while they fought in the military campaign against Axis powers while denied their rights as citizens within the United States. Victory over fascism and racism (the double victory) was promoted by black people and many non-black people too. The campaign wanted civil rights and to get more African Americans to be involved in the war effort too. The Courier newspaper received massive support in dealing with the Double V movement. Telegrams came in to promote the campaign as well. Movie starts, other celebrities, etc. in magazines, postcards, and newspapers endorse the Double V movement. The Double V campaign was eventually adopted by other black newspapers, including the Los Angeles Sentinel, the Washington Tribune, and the Challenger of Columbus, Ohio. Despite the Courier’s effort, by 1943, the paper provided less space in promoting the campaign and by September 1945 the paper stopped using Double V. The Double V campaign gave voice to many African Americans in opposing racism and discrimination.

The arts and the sciences excelled in African American life during that time period too. Jacob Lawrence created artistic masterpieces. Hattie McDaniel acted and worked in charities in her life to help people. Charles R. Drew helped to send plasma to save countless life of soldiers during World War II. Charles R. Drew was one of the greatest doctors of the 20th century. Frederick Douglas Patterson helped many African Americans to have greater educational opportunities.

A contingent of African-American WACs poses for the camera before departing for Europe in 1945. This was the first deployment of African-American women to be sent to the war front by the United States.Image result for Charity Edna Adams Earley

African American Women in World War II

African American women have a huge involvement in World War II. African American women worked in factories (like Luedell Mitchell and Lavada Cherry, who worked in the El Segundo Plant of Douglas Aircraft Company during WWII), and shipyards nationwide when a labor shortage existed. They were also in the armed forces too. They experienced sexism and racism (massive segregation existed in America), but they continued to contribute their talents in making society better for themselves and their families. Many black people were given menial jobs. Black women experienced lax pay in many cases and gender discrimination. Some racists walked off jobs instead of working with black people.

Tuskegee Air Women Tuskegee Air Women, 1940s. Assigned as weather observers and forecasters, cryptographers, radio operators, repairmen, sheet metal workers, parachute riggers, link trainer instructors, bombsite maintenance specialists, aerial photograph analysts and control tower operators in the Air Corps.

These Sisters in the picture above are from the Tuskegee Air Women. This is from the 1940's. They were assigned  as weather observers and forecasters, cryptographers, radio operators, repairmen, sheet metal workers, parachute riggers, link trainer instructors, bombsite maintenance specialists, aerial photograph analysts and control tower operators in the Air Corps. Famous black women pilots during this era were Janet Harmon and Willa Brown. They worked in Chicago. Both women helped to train black pilots. Mildred Hemmons Carter also was a member of the 1st graduating class of Tuskegee Institute's Flight School. Willa Brown Chappell was instrumental in training more than 200 students who went on to become the legendary Tuskegee airmen. Janet Harmon was the first black woman to receive a commercial pilot's license.

 Gertrude Margaritte Ivory-Bertram stands outside a building, probably at Fort Bragg, N.C., in her ANC blue service uniform, circa 1943.

She is Sister Gertrude Marguerite Bertram and she is a black American nurse. This picture is taken from about 1943. She is wearing her ANC blue service uniform. The location appears to be Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

There was the WAC. The WAC stands for the Women’s Army Corps. By January 1941, African American women join the ranks of Army nurses to strengthen the war effort. Black nurses worked hard too.  Sammie Mae Rice (1913-2006) was among the first African American nurses to serve in an overseas theater during World War II. Sammie Mae Rice (1913-2006) of Laurens, South Carolina, enlisted in the Army Nurse Corps on 24 July 1942. She served courageous and was discharged in March 1, 1946. In 1942, Charity Adams (Earley) became the first African-American female commissioned officer in the WAAC (or the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps).  The WAAC was converted to the Women's Army Corps (WAC) in 1943, and recognized as an official part of the regular army. More than 150,000 women served as WACs during the war, and thousands were sent to the European and Pacific theaters. In 1944, WACs landed in Normandy after D-Day and served in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines in the Pacific. In 1945 the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion (the only all African-American, all-female battalion during World War II) worked in England and France, making them the first black female battalion to travel overseas.

The battalion was commanded by MAJ Charity Adams Earley, and was composed of 30 officers and 800 enlisted women. WWII black recruitment was limited to 10 percent for the WAAC/WAC—matching the percentage of African-Americans in the US population at the time. For the most part, Army policy reflected segregation policy. Enlisted basic training was segregated for training, living and dining. At enlisted specialists schools and officer training living quarters were segregated but training and dining were integrated. A total of 6,520 African-American women served during the war. There is a picture of Major Charity E. Adams and Captain Abbie N. Campbell inspecting WACs in England on February of 1945. Mrs. Callie O. Gentry was the stenographer of the Tuskegee Airmen.

Image result for Six-Triple EightImage result for Six-Triple Eight

These Pictures show  the “Six-Triple Eight” Central Postal Battalion. They were made up of about 1,000 women. They moved mountains of mail for millions of American service members and civilians that clogged warehouses in England and France. Their service to their country had been overlooked for years. They were the first all African American, all women unit to serve overseas during World War II. 

Alberta Martin; She tried to enlist in the Army Nurse Corps. In autobiographical notes, she wrote that her application was denied because there was a quota for black nurses. In March 1945, she finally received a commission as a lieutenant and was one of 20 black nurses to serve in an integrated unit in Fort Meade, Md. ~

She was Alberta Martin. She tried to enlist in the Army Nurse Corps. In autobiographical notes, she wrote that her application was denied because there was a quota for black nurses. In March 1945, she finally received a commission as a lieutenant and was one of 20 black nurses to serve in an integrated unit in Fort Meade, Maryland. 

Bessie Stringfield was a legendary woman. She is known as the “Motorcycle Queen of Miami”. She was the first Jamaican-American woman to ride across America solo. At the age of 16 Stringfield taught herself to ride her first motorcycle, a 1928 Indian Scout. In 1930, at the age of 19, she commenced traveling across the United States. She made seven more long-distance trips in the US, and eventually rode through the 48 lower states, Europe, Brazil and Haiti. During World War II, she served one of the few motorcycle dispatch riders for the American military. During WWII Stringfield served as a civilian courier for the US Army, carrying documents between domestic army bases. She completed the rigorous training and rode her own blue 61 cubic inch Harley-Davidson. During the four years she worked for the Army, she crossed the United States eight times. She regularly encountered racism during this time, reportedly being deliberately knocked down by a white male in a pickup truck while traveling in the South. In the 1950's Stringfield moved to Miami, Florida. Some police harassed her since she was a black woman riding a motorcycle. Later, the police allowed her to ride her vehicle.  She owned 27 of her own motorcycles. She broke down barriers for women and Jamaican American motorcyclists. In fact, Stringfield was inducted into the Motorcycle Hall of Fame. This award was bestowed by the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) for “Superior Achievement by a Female Motorcyclist” is named in her honor. He lived from February 9, 1911 to February of 1993 in Opa Locka, Florida. She was born in Kingston, Jamaica.

Black Then Flash Black Photo: African American WACs, World War II |  In a photo that we found on Black History Album , we see this great image called “African American WACs (U.S. Army), World War II” . This was taken in 1945 at Camp Shanks at the Transportation Corps staging area of the New York Port of Embarkation.  In Commemoration of the African American men and women who have served in the U.S. Armed Forces.In 1941 the Army Nurse Corps began accepting African American Nurses.

Black women and men were about 6 percent of all employees in aircraft industries (whereas white women made up of 40 percent of all aircraft workers). Lena Horne, Dorothy Dandridge, Hazel Scott, and other African American women not only performed music and were in movies. They were active to oppose fascism during World War II. Clara Camille Carroll worked in Washington, D.C. in 1943. She was a black woman. She worked in a clerical job and she was from Cleveland, Ohio. By the 1950’s, she would be the first black American woman sailor based on Norfolk Naval base. She came into Howard University.  There is a picture of Lt. Harriet Ida Pickens and Ens. Frances Willis from 1944. Black women worked in railroads, built planes, worked in the battlefield, and traveled across the world in fulfilling their occupations. Willa Beatrice Brown was the first black woman to earn a pilot’s license in America. A lifelong advocate for gender and racial equality in flight and in the military, Brown not only lobbied the U.S. government to integrate the U.S. Army Air Corp and include African Americans in the Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP), but also co-founded the Cornelius Coffey School of Aeronautics with Cornelius Coffey, which was the first private flight training academy in the United States owned and operated by African Americans. She trained hundreds of pilots, several of whom would go on to become Tuskegee Airmen. She was politically and socially active in Chicago. She taught many on how to fly. Pvt. Ruth L. James worked hard during World War II too. Frances Bates was an US Navy WAVE Apprentice Seawoman back in 1945. The Navy did not allow women of color until January 25, 1945. The first African-American woman sworn into the Navy was Phyllis Mae Dailey, a nurse and Columbia University student from New York. She was the first of only four African American women to serve in the Navy during WW2.

Image result for a philip randolph   1941 2013 Top 10 feminist books for young girls

The Fights for Justice

Black Americans fought for justice during World War II. During the era of World War II, African Americans grew their political power. More African Americans moved into being Democrats than Republicans because of the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s claim to do something about discrimination in the military and involving society in general. FDR said that this New Deal would help Americans, but FDR had a mixed record on civil rights. Groups like the NAACP (or the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), the National Urban League, and the National Negro Congress have called for equality and justice for black Americans. The Pittsburgh Courier was a newspaper of a large black readership. By 1938, it created the Committee on Participation of Negroes in the National Defense Program. Many people wanted to increase the amount of proportion of African Americans in the military. NAACP’s the Crisis magazine published articles about wanting democracy at home.  During the 1940 presidential election, both parties courted the black vote. Incumbent President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was re-elected, partly because substantial numbers of black voters crossed previous party lines and voted for the Democratic Party candidate. During this time, great leaders like Ella Baker, Mary McLeod Bethune, Rosa Parks, Mary Church Terrell, and others fought for racial justice.

By 1941, civil rights activists A. Philip Randolph, A.J. Muste, and Bayard Rustin pushed Roosevelt to order fair employment for black people in the federal government. The activists threatened to march on Washington, D.C. in July 1941. Roosevelt didn’t want this to happen, because he felt that it would be a public relations disaster for his Presidency. A. Philip Randolph and others rightfully found it appalling that the Nazis were doing injustices overseas while black people were denied fundamental human rights in America. Back then, many black people were restricted from having skilled jobs in war production companies. Many of these companies refused to hire African Americans. The federal government at first refused to do anything about it. So, Randolph launched the MOWM or the March on Washington Movement. He wanted thousands of black people to march on Washington in 1941 to demand that Roosevelt issue an executive order to ban discrimination in the defense industry.

Walter White of the NAACP, Lester Granger of the Urban League, and other black leaders agreed with the plans for the march. Eleanor Roosevelt met with Randolph and White to try to convince them to call off the march. Randolph refused. He wanted action. So, FDR had a meeting with Randolph and other march leaders in June of 1941. Mayor Fiorello La Guardia of New York City worked with FDR and other to form a compromise agreement with Randolph. A. Philip Randolph agreed to call off the march and FDR issued the Executive Order 8802. This order banned employment discrimination in the defense industry and government. He or FDR also created a temporary Fair Employment Practices Committee to help ensure that defense manufacturers wouldn’t advance racial discrimination. It was the first action of the federal government to address racism nationwide since Reconstruction. Randolph called off the march and this was the first step in a long journey. This was one foundation of the civil rights movement of the 1950’s and the 1960’s.

Image result for port chicago mutiny

CORE or the Congress of Racial Equality was created in 1942. Its founders were James Farmer, George Houser, and Bernice Fisher. It was created in Chicago and wanted to promote the philosophy of nonviolence in order for black people and all people to have equality, freedom, and justice. They would be involved in many efforts to fight for civil rights from the era of WWII to decades afterwards.  The Port Chicago disaster caused another fight for justice. The Port Chicago disaster happened on July 17, 1944. It was an explosion of about 2,000 tons of ammunition. It was loaded onto ships by black Navy sailors under pressure from their white officers to hurry. It happened in Northern California and conditions were bad in that location. The explosion killed 320 military and civilian workers, most of them were black people who were killed. This led into the Port Chicago Mutiny, which called for safer working conditions in the location. This was the only   case of a full military trial for mutiny in the history of the U.S. Navy against 50 African American sailors who refused to continue loading ammunition under the same dangerous conditions. The trial was observed by the then young lawyer Thurgood Marshall and ended in conviction of all of the defendants. The trial was immediately and later criticized for not abiding by the applicable laws on mutiny, and it became influential in the discussion of desegregation.

It is important to mention more information about Josephine Baker. She was born in St. Louis, Missouri and became an international entertainer. Yet, she was more than a musician and a dancer. She had a great deal of conscious about the world society. She dedicated her life to tolerance and fighting Jim Crow segregation in America. She lived long enough to see legal Jim Crow segregation to be gone by 1965 in America. She also heroically worked for the French Resistance. The French Resistance was fighting the Nazis and the evil pro-Nazi Vichy state during World War II. After the war, she was awarded the Croix de guerre by the French military, and was named a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur by General Charles de Gaulle. She loved Paris as her 2nd love. She worked in the Civil Rights Movement and was a proponent of freedom, artistic creativity, and loyalty (or fidelity) to justice.

Rest in Power Sister Josephine Baker.

Image result for black people and the holocaustImage result for black people and the holocaustImage result for jesse owens olympics

Black people and the Holocaust

There were black people in Germany back then. The Nazi Empire murdered many Afro-Germans. Even before WWI, Afro-Germans faced racism and discrimination in Germany. Many German racists didn’t want black people and biracial people in Germany to have equal rights. After WWI, many African colonial troops in the Rhineland had fathered children with German women. Newspapers in Germany called these children “Rhineland ba___.” That was wrong and evil. A very small number of biracial children were born (only about 400-600). There was a total black population of 20,000 to 25,000 human beings in Germany at the time. Hitler was a racist and he believed in the lie that black people were genetically inferior to whites (when Hitler wasn’t even a blue eyed, blonde Aryan). In Mein Kampf, he accused Jewish people of sending black people into the Rhine to make children in order for the white race to be harmed (while Jewish people would dominate Germany). He blamed France for this too. Of course, Hitler was wrong and a racist plus an anti-Semite. The Nazis used a eugenics program to sterilize biracial children born during occupation. Hitler and the Gestapo executed the sterilization of 500 children under this program including girls as young as 11. That was heinous. One biracial person named Hilarius Gilges (he grew up in Dusseldorf, Germany) was captured by SS officers in June of 1933. The SS stands for Schutzstaffel or the paramilitary and the surveillance organization formed by Hitler in 1925. Hilarius Gilges was tortured and murdered by them. Afro-Germans experienced discrimination in employment, welfare, and housing in Nazi Germany. Many of them were banned from having a higher education. There were Afro-German prisoners of war and African American soldiers who were prisoners of war too. Many of them were executed and many were not. Violence against black prisoners of war existed, which was against the Geneva Convention.

In prisoner of war camps, black soldiers were kept segregated from white prisoners, and generally experienced worse conditions than their white comrades, conditions that deteriorated further in the last days of the war. Roughly half of the French colonial prisoners of war did not survive captivity. Groups such as North Africans were sometimes treated as black, sometimes as white. Sister Valaida Snow was an African American woman who was a great musician. She was victim of Nazi imprisonment in 1941 while in Denmark. She was released in May 1942 after a prisoner exchange. She continued to make music afterwards. The story of the Liberian-German, Hans Massaquoi, who died at age 87 in 2013 is important to know about. He was a former managing editor of the American Ebony magazine and he wrote a memoir about his childhood in Nazi Germany. Black soldiers of the American, French, and British armies were worked to death on construction projects or died as a result of mistreatment in concentration or prisoner-of-war camps. Others were never even incarcerated, but were instead immediately killed by the SS or Gestapo. Other victims of Nazis included Jean Marcel Nicolas, Mahjub bin Adam Mohamed, the African American pilot from Portland, Oregon Lieutenant Darwin Nichols, Gert Schramm, and others. Some African American members of the U.S. armed forces liberated people. They saw the evil Nazi atrocities first hand. The all African American tank unit called the 761st Tank Battalion was under the command of General George Patton. The Battalion participated in the liberation of Gunskirchen or a subcamp of the Mauthausen concentration camp in May of 1945.

Image result for world war 2 african americanImage result for world war 2 african american


World War II was a long, deadly war. It involved the death of more people than any war in history. War is filled with bloodshed and destruction. African Americans were heavily involved in WWII as pilots, nurses, soldiers, tank operators, naval leaders, etc. They wanted the Axis Powers to be defeated. Also, they wanted racism to be defeated domestically in America. That is the precise meaning of the Double V movement. It wanted fascists defeated overseas and in America. The fascists in America promoted not only Jim Crow, but discrimination, racism, lynching, and other forms of oppression. Yet, black people never quit. We fought against injustices, stood up to the status quo, and defeated fascists in Europe at the same time. There were riots in Detroit and Chicago along with a rebellion in Harlem during the 1940’s. The activism of black people caused FDR to issue the first pro-civil rights executive order from a President since Reconstruction. World War II veterans weren’t just men. Many World War II veterans were black women too. Their service should be acknowledged, respected, and honored. After the War, black people still faced oppression and injustice. Many WWII veterans were murdered by racists. Many veterans continued to form an important part of the civil rights movement too in their activism. The Allied victory ended one chapter and started a new one in world history. America became the most powerful military nation on Earth. It became an international military and economic force overnight. It used capitalism to rebuilt markets in Europe and Japan. Also, the evil of Jim Crow would continue after WWII for the next 2 decades. The Civil Rights Movement in the modern sense would rise after the war. The next chapter of the African American History series will describe the modern Day Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to 1968.

Yes, Our Eyes are on the Prize.

By Timothy

Image result for the second great migration americaImage result for the second great migration america

Appendix A: The Second Great Migration

One of the greatest events in human history was the Second Great Migration of African Americans. It was the migration of more than five million African Americans. They traveled from the South to the North, the Midwest, and the West Coast. It happened from 1941 to 1970. It was much larger and was different from the first Great Migration (which lasted from ca. 1910-1940). The Second Great Migration started during the era of World War II. During the Second Great Migration, people traveled into Californian cities too like Los Angeles, Oakland, Richmond, and Long Beach. These places offered skilled jobs in the defense industry. In the Midwest, the West, and the North, discrimination still existed. Back then, many African Americans already had urban jobs in the South before they relocated. Many black workers were forced to work in segregated, low skilled jobs in many cities of the South. The Great Migration allowed African Americans to get highly skilled, well paid jobs at California shipyards. The Second Great Migration caused many African Americans to live in urban locations in a higher level. By the end of the Second Great Migration, 80 percent of black people lived in cities. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West. Many black people experienced dangerous work conditions too. There was a mention explosion at Port Chicago, California (near San Francisco). It killed over 200 black people in 1944. Later, some workers refused to work until conditions improved. Up to 50 were tried for mutiny and imprisoned. Many people migrated for a diversity of reasons.

Many wanted economic improvement in their own lives. They didn’t want economic deprivation. African American men and women wanted skilled jobs. They wanted to support their families. Northern employees hired African Americans from the South and whites from the South as a cheap labor force to replace the more costly European immigrant workers. Racial violence, political disenfranchisement, and educational opportunities were other reasons for the 2nd Great Migration too. In cities like San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, etc. de facto segregation existed. De Facto segregation is segregation by policy not by law. Many black people were forced into low income housing, because of racial and economic discrimination. Freeways, urban renewal, and covenant policies in the Midwest, the West, and the North harmed black communities and advanced more segregation. Many families were overcrowded. White flight grew during the 1960’s too. White flight was driven in part by the process of blockbusting. White property owners, fearful of minority groups, sold their homes to real estate agents at a low price, often due to the tactics of the real estate companies themselves. Agents would then encourage that the vacant properties be bought by black families seeking respite from the overcrowded neighborhoods in which they were sequestered. When one black family moved in, the white neighbors would immediately sell their homes to the waiting real estate companies, who would in turn sell to more black people at a significant markup. Black people fought discriminatory housing laws too. The 1963 Rumford Fair Housing Act banned discrimination in housing in California. Yet, right wingers ended that law by the Proposition 14 (which harmed housing rights) in 1964. It would take the Supreme Court to declare Prop 14 unconstitutional. Some scholars believe that Prop 14 (which is an evil policy) contributed to the Watts rebellion of 1965. Many black Southerners brought their culture from food to music to areas across the West Coast, the North, and the Midwest in homogeneous communities. The Second Great Migration changed the culture of America permanently.

By Timothy